By St Lavatory Cassian
That the head is not elated by vino entirely.
THE belly when filled with all sort of nutrient gives birth to seeds of unconstraint, nor can the head, when choked with the weight of nutrient, maintain the direction and authorities of the ideas.
For not but is intoxication with vino used to uplift the brain, but surplus of all kinda nutrient does it weak and incertain, and robs it of all its powerfulness of pure and clear contemplation. The cause of the overthrow and abandon of Sodom was not insobriety through vino, but fulness of breadstuff. Hear the Lord reproof Jerusalem through the oracle. `` For how maked thy sis Sodom wickedness, except therein she ate her breadstuff in fulness and teemingness? '' 828 And because through fulness of breadstuff they were inflamed with unmanageable lustfulness of the flesh, they were fired upwardly by the judgement of 236 God with fire and brimstone from Shangri-la. But if nimiety of breadstuff exclusively drove them to such a hasty ruination into wickedness through the frailty of satiation, what shall we consider of those who with a vigorous body daring to partake of meat and vino with boundless license, taking not merely what their bodily frailty demands, but what the eager desire of the nous advises.
How bodily failing need not interfere with pureness of bosom.
BODILY failing is no balk to pureness of bosom, if justly suchly nutrient is taken as the bodily failing involves, and not what pleasance invites. It is easier to bump workforces who wholly abstainfrom the more fattening kinda nutrients than workforces who do a moderate usage of what is permited to our necessities; and manpowers who deny themselves everything out of love of continency than workforces who taking nutrient on the supplication of failing uphold the due step of what issufficient.829 For bodily failing holds its glorification of temperateness, where though nutrient is permitted to the neglecting body, a man strips himself of his refreshment. although he involves it, and merely indulges in with great care much nutrient as the rigorous judgement of moderation decides to be sufficient for the necessities of life, and not what the longing appetence invites. The more delicate nutrients, as they lead to bodily wellness, so they
How nutrient should be taken with respect to the design at perfect continency.
So it is a really true and most splendid telling of the Begetters that the right method of fasting and abstention lies in the step of moderateness and bodily castigating; and that this is the design of perfect virtuousness for all likewise,viz.: that though we are still hale to want it, yet we should exert self-restraint in the thing of the nutrient, which we are obligated to take owing to the necessity of supporting the body. For even if one is weak in body, he can achieve to a perfect virtuousness and one up to that of those who are thoroughly strong and healthy, if with soundness of psyche he holds a cheque upon the desires and lustfulnesses which are not referable failing of the flesh. For the Apostle states: `` And take not care for the flesh in itslusts. '' 832 He makes not forbid tending for it in every regard: but states that attention is not to be taken in respect to its desires and lecherousnesses. He cuts forth the voluptuous fancy for the flesh: he makes not except the control necessary for life: he makes the former, 50 through baby the flesh we should be regarded in unsafe webs of the desires; the latter 50 the body should be wounded by our mistake and unable to fulfill its religious and necessary responsibilities.
Of the step of the castigation to be attempted, and the redress of fasting.
THE flawlessness so of abstention is not to be collected from computations of clip exclusively, nor simply from the quality of the nutrient; but beyond everything from the mind of scruples. To each one should enforce such a economical diet on himself as the conflict of his bodily battle may necessitate. The canonic watching of fastings is so valuable and by all agencies to be holded. But unless this is followed by a temperate partaking of nutrient, one will not be able to make the end of flawlessness.
For the abstention of drawn-out fasts-where satiation of body follows-produces tiredness for a clip instead than pureness and celibacy. Flawlessness of nous so depends upon the abstention of the stomach. He holds no permanent pureness and celibacy, who is not contented e'er to hold to a well balanced and temperate diet. Fast, although wicked, yet if unneeded relaxation follows, is rendered useless, and soon conducts to the frailty of gluttony. A sensible supply of nutrient partaken of day-after-day moderately, is better than a wicked and long fast at intervals. Unreasonable fast holds been cognized not merely to countermine the stability of the psyche, but besides to weaken the powerfulness of supplications through right-down fatigue of body.
That abstention from nutrient is not of itself sufficient for saving of bodily and mental pureness.
IN order to uphold the head and body in a perfect status abstention from nutrient is not solely sufficient: unless the other virtuousnesses of the head too are joined to that. Then humbleness must firstly be acquired by the virtuousness of obeisance, and crunching toil833 and bodily exhaustion. The ownership of money must not merely be avoided, but the desire for it must be absolutely rooted out. For it is not plenty not to possess it, -a thing which comes to many as a thing necessarily: but we ought, if by opportunity it is offered, not even to acknowledge the want
to hold it. The insaneness of ire should be commanded; the downcast expression of dejection be defeated; boastfulness should be disdained, the superciliousness of pridefulness trodden under pes, and the switching and rambling ideas of the psyche kept by continual remembrance of God. And the slippy wanderings of our bosom should be took back again to the contemplation of God equally oftentimes as our foxy enemy, in his enterprise to conduct offly the nous a prisoner from this consideration, crawls into the inmost deferrals of the bosom.
That bodily lustfulnesses are not extinguished except by the full rooting out of frailty.
FOR it is an impossibleness that the fiery gestures of the body can be extinguished, before the motivator of the other chief frailties are perfectly rooted out: touching which we will verbalise in their proper spot, if God licences, separately, in different books. But now we should address with Gluttony, that is the desire of the palate, against which our first fightis. He so will ne'er be able to check the gestures of a combustion lecherousness, who can not keep the desires of the appetency. The celibacy of the internal man is demonstrated by the flawlessness of this virtuousness. For you will ne'er experience sure that he can endeavour against the resistance of a stronger enemy, whom you hold seen defeated by weaker ones in a higher struggle. For of all virtuousnesses the nature is but one and the same, although they seem to be dissever into many different sorts and names: even as there is but one substance of gold, although it may appear to be lotted through many different sort of jewellery according to the acquirement of the gold-worker. And then he is proved to possess no virtuousness deadly, who is cognise to hold interrupted downwards in some constituent of them. For how can we believe that that man holds extinguished the firing heats of eros ( which are inflamed not simply by bodily incitation but by frailty of the brain ), who could not gentle the crisp stingings of ire which interrupt out from intemperance of bosom only? Or how can we consider that he holds quash the wanton wants of the flesh and spirit, who holds not been able to subdue the simple mistake of pridefulness? Or how can we believe that one holds trodden under pes a abandon which is grained in-person, who holds not been able to disinherit the love of money, which is something external and outside our ain substance? In what manner will he prevail in the warfare of flesh and spirit, who holds not been man plenty to heal the disease of dejection? Nonetheless great a metropolis may be protected by the tallness of its walls and the strength of its closed gates, yet it is set waste by the giving upwardly of one postern yet little. For what difference be intimate do whether a unsafe foeman does his manner into the bosom of the metropolis over high walls, and through the broad infinite of the gate, or through secret and narrow transitions?
That in our religious competition we ought to pull an instance from the sensual competitions.
`` ONE who endeavors in the games is not coronated unless he holds postulatelawfully. '' 834 One who desires to extinguish the natural desires of the flesh, should firstly rush to defeat those frailties whose place is outside our nature. For if we want to do run of the force of the Apostle 's stating, we ought firstly to acquire what are the jurisprudences and what the field of the universe 's competition, so that eventually by a comparing with these, we may be able to cognise what the blest Apostle intended to instruct to us who are endeavoring in a religious competition by this illustration. For in these conflicts, which, as the same Apostle says, hold out "a corruptible crown"835 to the victors, this rule is kept, that he who aims at preparing himself for the crown of glory, which is embellished with the privilege of238 exemption, and who is anxious to enter the highest struggle in the contest, should first in the Olympic and Pythian games give evidence of his abilities as a youth, and his strength in its first beginnings; since in these the younger men who want to practise this training are tested as to whether they deserve or ought to be admitted to it, by the judgment both of the president of the games and of the whole multitude. And when any one has been carefully tested, and has first been proved to be stained by no infamy of life, and then has been adjudged not ignoble through the yoke of slavery, and for this reason unworthy to be admitted to this training and to the company of those who practice it, and when thirdly he produces sufficient evidence of his ability and prowess and by striving with the younger men and his own compeers has shown both his skill and valour as a youth, and going forward from the contests of boys has been by the scrutiny of the president permitted to mix with full-grown men and those of approved experience, and has not only shown himself their equal in valour by constant striving with them, but has also many a time carried off the prize of victory among them, then at last he is allowed to approach the most illustrious conflict of the games, permission to contend in which is granted to none but victors and those who are decked with many crowns and prizes. If we understand this illustration from a sensual competition, we ought by a comparing with it to cognize what is the system and method of our religious struggle also.
That we can not enter the engagement of the internal man unless we hold been liberated from the frailty of gluttony.
WE likewise ought first to give grounds of our freedom from subjugation to the flesh. For "of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he the slave."836 And "every one that doeth sin is the slave of sin."837 And when the scrutiny of the president of the contest finds that we are stained by no infamy of disgraceful lust, and when we are judged by him not to be slaves of the flesh, and ignoble and unworthy of the Olympic struggle against our vices, then we shall be able to enter the lists against our equals, that is the lusts of the flesh and the motions and disturbances of the soul. For it is impossible for a full stomach to do run of the combat of the interior man: nor is he worthy to be sought in difficult fights, who can be defeated in a slight brush.
How gluttonous desires can be defeated.
FIRST then we must trample under foot gluttonous desires, and to this end the mind must be reduced not only by fasting, but also by vigils, by reading, and by frequent compunction of heart for those things in which perhaps it recollects that it has been deceived or overcome, sighing at one time with horror at sin, at another time inflamed with the desire of perfection and saintliness: until it is fully occupied and possessed by such cares and meditations, and recognizes the participation of food to be not so much a concession to pleasure, as a burden laid upon it; and considers it to be rather a necessity for the body than anything desirable for the soul. And, preserved by this zeal of mind and continual compunction, we shall beat down the wantonness of the flesh (which becomes more proud and haughty by being fomented with food) and its dangerous incitement, and so by the copiousness of our tears and the weeping of our heart we shall succeed in extinguishing the fiery furnace of our body, which is kindled by the Babylonish king838 who continually furnishes us with opportunities for sin, and vices with which we burn more fiercely, instead of naphtha and pitch-until, through the grace of God, instilled like dew by His Spirit in our hearts, the heats of fleshly lusts can be altogether deadened. This so is our first competition, this is as it were our first test in the Olympic games, to extinguish the desires of the palate and the stomach by the yearning for flawlessness. On which chronicle we must not merely tread downward all unneeded desire for nutrient by the contemplation of the virtuousnesses, but too must take what is necessary for the support of nature, not without anxiousness of bosom, as if it were opposed to celibacy. And then at length we may enter on the class of our life, so that there may be no clip in which we experience that we are recalled from our religious surveys, farther than when we are obligated by the failing of the body to fall for the requisite tending of it. And when we are subjected to this necessity-of attending to the wants of life instead than the desires, of the soul-we should festinate to recede equally quickly as possible from it, as if it maintained us back from verily health-giving surveys. For we can not maybe contemn the satisfaction of nutrient shown to us, unless the psyche is doctored on the contemplation of Jehovah things, and is the 239 instead caught with the love of virtuousness and the delectation of things heavenly. And then a man will contemn all things show as transitory, when he holds securely mended his mental regard on, those things which are immoveable and everlasting, and already contemplates in heart-though still in the flesh-the beatification of his future life.
To be kept
Institutes ofSt. Lav Cassian the Roman, Book V, Chapters 6 - 9
828 Ezek. xvi. 49.
829 Petschenig 's text therein transition is as follows: `` Facilius vidimus viros qui ab escis corpulentioribus omnimodis temperarent,
quam moderate usos pro necessitate concessis, et qui totum sibi pro amore continenti denegarent, quam qui Ea hero infirmitatis
occasione sumentes mensuram sufficienti custodirent. '' Gazus gives something rather different: `` Facilius vidimus victos qui
AB escis corpulentioribus omnimodis temperarent, quas moderate usus pro necessitate concedit, et qui totum sibi pro continenti
amore denegarent; quam qui Ea substitute infirmitatis occasione sumentes mensuram sufficienti custodirent. ''
830 Quidquid enim fortitudinis
.-Petschenig. Gazus holds `` Pound quid enim fortitudinis case
831 Quod pro perfect continenti o.k. esca sumenda sit
.-Petschenig. Quomodo cibum appetere, actinium sumere liceat
rubric as given by Gazus.
832 ROM. xiii. 14.
833 Operis contritione
( Petschenig ): cordis contritione
( Gazus ).
834 2 Tim. ii. 5.
835 1 Cor. IX. 25.
836 2 Pet. ii. 19.
837 Lavatory octonaries. 34.
838 Cf. Dan. iii. 6; and see below Book Sise. C XVII. where Cassian over again speaks of the Beelzebub as the Babylonish Rex.
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